PhD in Management Sciences - University of Paris IX, Dauphine. Diploma of Advanced Studies (DEA) in Organization Sciences - University of Paris-Dauphine, 1982. Diploma in Advanced Studies (DEA) in Policies and Strategies of Organizations - University of Paris-Dauphine, 1980. Diploma of Advanced Studies (DES) in Economics - University of Paris I, 1976. Master in Economics - University of Paris I, 1974. Master in Sociology of Development - under the direction of Prof. George Balandier, University of Paris V, 1971. Retired Associate Professor at ISEG, Universidade de Lisboa. Reformed official of the diplomatic career frame of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retired Principal Administrator of the European Commission. He was a lecturer at the Directorate-General for Education and Culture on the EU's Development Cooperation Policy.