José Paulo Marques dos Santos is Assistant Professor of Marketing and Neuroscience at the University Institute of Maia (ISMAI), and in the Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal. Although originally a Chemical Engineer, José's professional life has been mostly devoted to management in industry. He holds a PhD program on Neuroscience in Marketing, concluded at ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal. His main interests are related to both these disciplines with an emphasis on Behavioral Neuroscience, Social Neuroscience, and Brands. Other interests include Semiotics, mainly Peircean Semiotics, and the processes of assigning meanings to symbols, here included the emergence of meanings within social groups and the role of imitation in the social arena. In the Methodology area the interests are twofold: neuroimaging techniques FMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), EEG (electroencephalography), TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), tDCS/tACS (transcranial direct/alternate current stimulation), and FNIRS infrared spectroscopy), together with multivariate analytical tools (machine learning) of the functional data like ANNs (artificial neural networks); and the construction of theory, with prominence to Grounded Theory, which is also a matter of concern and study.